Modelling and Observing Reality in an Uncertain, Interconnected World
Here is a thought experiment. If nobody, no organism saw the rainbow, did it exist, did it actually happen? Some might say that if it was raining at the time and it was sunny, there was a high chance it did exist. Based on humidity level, sunshine, rain, etc....
PCA Trust System – Example of PCA Trust Statement for Client XXXX
We can produce PCA Trust Statements for any supplier, manufacturer and industry that wants to build trust in their process, product or service marketing. PCA Trust Statements are unique and the most secure form of statement. PCA Trust Statements are highly secure,...
PCA Trust System – A PCA Innovation
Has your process technology been independently verified? Can it be looked up on a public blockchain? Are your suppliers promoting this in their marketing? There are increasing consumer, health and environmental pressures for transparency in the supply chain. Because...
The Fourth Industrial Revolution is Happening Now in Manufacturing
The Fourth Industrial Revolution is happening now! Some organisations are already leading the way... As highlighted in the McKinsey article “‘Lighthouse’ manufacturers lead the way—can the rest of the world keep up?” This digital transformation is based on the...
Combating Fraud with Independent Objective Reporting and Hard Data
According to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) 2020 Report to the Nations, 21% of the studied cases resulted in fraud losses to the organisation of USD 1 million+. It is estimated that 5% of revenue is lost to fraud globally (>USD 4.5 trillion per...
How Blockchain Is Changing Digital Marketing
"Marketing has changed a lot in the past decade, but it’s about to go through another revolution, thanks in large part to blockchain." Hello, Authentication and Transparency "In the past, people would shop everything from eBay to Craigslist to Whole Foods and...
Scatterplot comparing Spearman and Pearson correlation 1
Scatterplot comparing Pearson and Spearman correlation 2
Python Code for Scatterplot comparing Pearson and Spearman correlation 2
Scatterplot comparing Spearman and Pearson correlation 3
The Standard Normal Probability Distribution with shaded regions
Attribution: D Wells [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
The Grampian Prepared Foods Factory, Industrial Estate Road, UK
Attribution: Eric Jones / The Grampian Prepared Foods Factory, Industrial Estate Road, via Wikimedia Commons
Visualisation of how standard deviation (σ) is calculated
Attribution: Thebiologyprimer [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Processing facilities at the Essakane Mine in Burkina Faso
Excess Kurtosis Beta Distribution with mean for full range and variance from 0.05 to 0.25
Attribution: Dr. J. Rodal [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Graph of bias in estimated standard deviation vs. alpha (significance level) and N (sample size)
Attribution: Rb88guy [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
3D representation of a hierarchical tree defining a classification (cluster) performed after a factorial analysis of the multiple correspondences on the "tea" dataset available under R with FactoMineR
Attribution: Jackverr [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
This is based on a print of the “Single Malt Whisky Flavor Map” which was designed by the “Friends of the Classic Malts”, Glasgow, and published in free copies 2007
Dave Broom was named as the Editor. Diageo funded the project.
Attribution: Tasma3197 [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Cameronbridge Distillery, Scotland. This Diageo distillery is the birthplace of Cameronbridge pure grain whisky, and it is also where Gordons Gin, Smirnoff Vodka and other 'exotic' spirits are distilled
Attribution: James Allan / Cameronbridge Distillery, via Wikimedia Commons
Norbord Factory, Scotland. Manufacturers of engineered wood based panel products
Attribution: Ivor MacKenzie / Norbord Factory, via Wikimedia Commons
Visit of an EITI commission 2008 in Ghana: In the caldera of the Ahafo mine, an open-pit mine of the Newmont Ghana Gold Limited
Attribution: The EITI [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Processing scheme for the Rosebel Gold Mine in Suriname
VisIt's Scatter plot allows for the visualisation of multivariate data of up to four dimensions
The Scatter plot takes multiple scalar variables and uses them for different axes in phase space. The different variables are combined to form coordinates in the phase space and they are displayed using glyphs and coloured using another scalar variable.
Attribution: UCRL [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Box-plot of normal and non normal distribution. Created with R
Attribution: Gbdivers [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
The Ravensthorpe Nickel Mine, Western Australia
Attribution: Calistemon [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
An example of the bivariate Gaussian (normal), Student-t, Gumbel, and Clayton copulæ
Attribution: Avraham [CC BY 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
This is number 5 Blast Furnace located at the Port Talbot Corus (now Tata) Steel Plant, UK
Attribution: Grubb at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Data fusion involves techniques that combine data from multiple sources (dimension #1 & #2) and gather that information in order to achieve inferences (see scatter plot)
More effective and potentially more accurate than using a single source of data (one or the other histogram).
Attribution: Jarekt [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Aluminium smelter of TRIMET Aluminium, Essen, Germany
Attribution: Tuxyso / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
International Paper Company, Georgetown, USA
Attribution: Pollinator [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Image of random data plus trend, with best-fit line and smoothing curves
The data is 1000 points, with a trend of 1-in-100, with random normal noise of SD 10 superimposed. The r2 fit of the raw data is 0.08; of the 10-pt-smoothed, 0.57; of 100-pt-smoothed, 0.97. For the raw data, the simple trend line explains almost none of the variance of the time series (only 8%). For the 100-pt filtering, the trend line explains almost all of the data (97%). The trend lines are almost identical as are the confidence levels. It shows that a low r2 value should not be interpreted as evidence of lack of trend.
Attribution: Maksim [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Twin Creeks gold mine, Nevada, USA; Carlin-style mineralisation in Mesozoic sedimentary rocks
Attribution: Geomartin [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Terra Mineralia. Minerals Exhibition TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Gypsum with Calcite in foreground)
Attribution: Kora27 [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
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